Types of routing protocols
Distance vector protocols
Distance vector protocols send complete routing table to each neighbor (a neighbor is directly connected router that runs the same routing protocol). They usually use some version of Bellman-Ford algorithm to calculate the best routes. Compared with link state routing protocols, distance vector protocols are simpler to configure and require little management, but are susceptible to routing loops and converge slower than link state routing protocols. Distance vector protocols also use more bandwidth because they send complete routing table, while link state procotols sends specific updates only when topology changes occur.
Link state protocols
Each router running a link state routing protocol creates three different tables:
1. neighbor table – the table of neighboring routers running the same link state routing protocol
2. topology table – the table that stores the topology of the entire network
3. routing table – the table that stores the best routes