The term “encapsulation” is used to describe a process of adding headers and trailers around some data. For example, when you send an email using your favourite email program (like Outlook or Thunderbird) that email is sent from the Application layer to the Transport layer. The Transport layer encapsulates the data and adds its own header (with its own information, such as which port will be used) and passes the data to the Internet layer, which again encapsulates the received data and adds its own header, usually with information about the source and destination IP addresses. The Internet layer than passes the data to the Network Access layer. This layer is the only layer that adds both a header and a trailer. The data is then sent through a physical network link.